Reflects the links between ritual and economic practices of hunter-gatherers in terms of the value of reliable water sources in nurturing communities on a seasonal basis.

Twyfelfontein Engravings 

The site has one of the known largest concentrations of engravings in Africa executed on flat and upright slabs. Over five thousand individual figures have been recorded to date.


10,000 BC-1000 BCE

Twyfelfontein or /Ui-//aes has one of the largest concentrations of […] petroglyphs, i.e. rock engravings in Africa. Most of these well-preserved engravings represent rhinoceros, . The site also includes six painteelephant, ostrich and giraffe, as well as drawings of human and animal footprintsd rock shelters with motifs of human figures in red ochre. The objects excavated from two sections, date from the Late Stone Age. The site forms a coherent, extensive and high-quality record of ritual practices relating to hunter-gatherer communities in this part of southern Africa over at least 2,000 years, and eloquently illustrates the links between the ritual and economic practices of hunter-gatherers

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How far back?

Pre 500 BCE 3%

2020 | Present